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The Jurassic Park franchise is a series of books, films, comics, and videos centering on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Studios bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published. The book was successful, as was the 1993 film adaptation which led to two sequels, although the last was not based on a novel, as the previous films were. The software developers Ocean Software, BlueSky Software, Sega of America and Telltale Games have had the rights to developing video games since the 1993 film, and numerous games have been produced. Currently a fourth feature film is in the works, but it has been lingering in "development hell" since a year after the third film. There have been numerous rumors about the project since it was first reported, many of them relating to plot and script ideas, and new logos. Recently in November 2009, Joe Johnston, the director of Jurassic Park III, stated that the fourth film will have a different plot than the other three films.[1]

Development Edit

Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay around a pterosaur being cloned from fossil DNA. After wrestling with this idea for a while, he came up with Jurassic Park.[2] Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the TV series ER. Before the book was published, Crichton put up a non-negotiable fee for $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Columbia Tristar and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante also bid for the rights,[3] Universal further paid Crichton $500,000 to adapt his own novel,[4] but Universal eventually acquired them in May 1990 for Spielberg.[3] Universal desperately needed money to keep their company alive, and partially succeeded with Jurassic Park, as it became a critical[5] and commercial[6] success. After Jurassic Park was released to home video, Crichton was pressured from many sources for a sequel novel. Crichton declined all offers until Spielberg himself told him that he would be keen to direct a movie adaptation of the sequel, if one were written. Crichton began work almost immediately. After the novel was published in 1995, The Lost World: Jurassic Park began production in September 1996.[7] Before the production of the second film, Joe Johnston approached Steven Spielberg about directing the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct.[8] Production began on August 30, 2000.[9]

BooksEdit

Main article: Jurassic Park

Jurassic Park stemmed from the idea of a screenplay about cloning a pterosaur from fossilized DNA.[10] Michael Crichton worked on the idea for several years; he decided his first draft would have a theme park for the setting and a young boy as the main character.[10] Response was extremely negative, so Crichton rewrote the story to make it from an adult's point of view, which went over much better.[10] A sequel novel began production after readers and Steven Spielberg himself pressured Michael Crichton for a sequel novel.[11] Michael Crichton confirmed that his novel had elements taken from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel of the same name.[12] The book was also an outstanding success, both with professional and amateur critics.[11] A film adaptation was released in 1997.

FilmsEdit

Jurassic ParkEdit

Main article: Jurassic Park (film)

Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. The film centers on the island of Isla Nublar, where scientists have created an amusement park of cloned dinosaurs. John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) invites a group of scientists, played by Sam Neill, Jeff Goldblum and Laura Dern, to visit the park. Sabotage sets the dinosaurs on the loose, and technicians and visitors attempt to escape the island. Development of the film began before the novel was even published, and Crichton was hired to contribute to a script that cut much of its story. Spielberg hired Stan Winston Studios' puppets and worked with Industrial Light & Magic to develop cutting-edge CGI to portray the dinosaurs. Jurassic Park was well received by critics, although they criticized the characterization. During its release, the film grossed $914 million, becoming the most successful film yet released, and it is currently the 14th-highest grossing feature film, significantly inspiring a new breed of films that primarily used CGI for special effects. The film was followed by The Lost World: Jurassic Park in 1997 and by Jurassic Park III in 2001, with Jurassic Park IV in "development hell".

The Lost World: Jurassic ParkEdit

Main article: The Lost World: Jurassic Park

The Lost World: Jurassic Park is a 1997 science fiction film and sequel to Jurassic Park directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. After the success of the first film, fans and critics alike pressured Michael Crichton for a sequel novel. Having never done one before, Crichton originally declined, but when Steven Spielberg finally started pressuring Crichton, a sequel novel was announced. As soon as the novel was published, a film was in pre-production, with a target release date of mid-1997. The film was a commercial success, breaking many box-office records when released. The film had mixed reviews, similar to its predecessor in terms of characterization. Although the film is said to be based on Crichton's novel, exactly one scene from the book was actually used in the movie. The film centers on the island of Isla Sorna, an auxiliary site for the main Jurassic Park island, where dinosaurs have taken over and live in the wild. Ian Malcolm leads a team to document the dinosaurs in their native habitat, while an InGen team attempts to capture them for a second Jurassic Park in San Diego. After finishing The Lost World, Steven Spielberg stated he would never work on another Jurassic Park movie again. A few years later, Joe Johnston began production on Jurassic Park III.

Jurassic Park IIIEdit

Main article: Jurassic Park III

Jurassic Park III is a 2001 science fiction film and sequel to The Lost World: Jurassic Park. It is the first in the series not to be based on a book by Michael Crichton or directed by Steven Spielberg. Originally, a third Jurassic Park film was produced under the title Jurassic Park: Extinction,[13] with the script involving a killer disease that threatened to wipe out the dinosaurs on both islands. After numerous script changes, Universal decided to drop the idea in favor of the current plot, with the title Jurassic Park III. Although the idea was dropped, it was to be reused for Jurassic Park IV.[14] Joe Johnston had been interested in directing the sequel to Jurassic Park and approached his friend Steven Spielberg about the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct.[8] Spielberg, nevertheless, stayed involved in this film by becoming its executive producer. Production began on August 30, 2000[9] with filming in California, Oahu, and Molokai.[15] The film was a moderate success, and had mixed reviews from critics. Most were split on whether the third installment was better or worse than its predecessor. The film once again suffered reviews of little to no characterization. No character who was in the second film appears in this one, although Sam Neill and Laura Dern from the original installment return, and Ian Malcolm and John Hammond are mentioned. The setting takes place on Isla Sorna, the island from the second film, after a couple hires Dr. Alan Grant to be their tour guide (but they really hire him to help rescue their son, Eric). But their plane crashes on the Island, and the survivors attempt to escape the island, while being stalked by a Spinosaurus and Velociraptors.

Principal castEdit

Character Film
Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park Jurassic Park III
Alan Grant Sam Neill   Sam Neill
Ellie Sattler Laura Dern   Laura Dern
Ian Malcolm Jeff Goldblum  
John Hammond Richard Attenborough  
Tim Murphy Joseph Mazzello  
Lex Murphy Ariana Richards  
Donald Gennaro Martin Ferrero  
Robert Muldoon Bob Peck  
Ray Arnold Samuel L. Jackson  
Dennis Nedry Wayne Knight  
Lewis Dodgson Cameron Thor  
Gerry Harding Gerald R. Molen  
Henry Wu B. D. Wong  
Sarah Harding   Julianne Moore  
Kelly Malcolm   Vanessa Lee Chester  
Nick Van Owen   Vince Vaughn  
Eddie Carr   Richard Schiff  
Peter Ludlow   Arliss Howard  
Roland Tembo   Pete Postlethwaite  
Dieter Stark   Peter Stormare  
Ajay Sidhu   Harvey Jason  
Robert Burke   Thomas F. Duffy  
Paul Kirby   William H. Macy
Amanda Kirby   Tea Leoni
Eric Kirby   Trevor Morgan
Billy Brennan   Alessandro Nivola
Udesky   Michael Jeter
Nash   Bruce A. Young
Cooper   John Diehl

Template:See also

ReceptionEdit

Box office performanceEdit

Film Release date Box office revenue Box office ranking Budget Reference
United States Foreign Worldwide All time domestic All time worldwide
Jurassic Park June 11, 1993 $357,067,947 $557,623,171 $914,691,118 #14
#17(A)
#14 $63,000,000 [16]
The Lost World: Jurassic Park May 23, 1997 $229,086,679 $389,552,320 $618,638,999 #67
#97(A)
#53 $73,000,000 [17]
Jurassic Park III July 18, 2001 $181,171,875 $187,608,934 $368,780,809 #120 #148 $93,000,000 [18]
Total $767,326,501 $1,134,784,425 $1,902,110,926 $229,000,000
List indicator(s)
  • (A) indicates the adjusted totals based on current ticket prices (by Box Office Mojo).

Critical reactionEdit

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic
Overall Top Critics
Jurassic Park 87% (38 reviews)[19] 90% (10 reviews)[20] 78% (20 reviews)[21]
The Lost World: Jurassic Park 48% (58 reviews)[22] 42% (12 reviews)[23] 59% (18 reviews)[24]
Jurassic Park III 49% (154 reviews)[25] 30% (30 reviews)[26] 49% (30 reviews)[27]

Future Edit

Jurassic Park IV Edit

In June 2002, director Steven Spielberg told Starlog magazine that he planned to produce Jurassic Park IV and that director Joe Johnston, who helmed Jurassic Park III, would direct it. In November 2002, screenwriter William Monahan was hired to write,[28] with the film's release slated for summer 2005.[29] In July 2003, Monahan completed the first draft, with the story no longer set in the jungle.[30] Actor Sam Neill said he was returning as Dr. Alan Grant, with filming expected to begin in 2004 in California and Hawaii.[31] In September 2004, screenwriter John Sayles was re-writing the script, with the film re-slated for a winter 2005 release.[32] In October 2004, paleontologist Jack Horner said he would return as technical adviser for the fourth film as he had done for previous Jurassic Park films.[33] By April 2005, special effects artist Stan Winston explained that the delay in production was due to repeated revisions of the film's script, none of which satisfied Spielberg. According to Winston, "He felt neither of [the drafts] balanced the science and adventure elements effectively. It's a tough compromise to reach, as too much science will make the movie too talky, but too much adventure will make it seem hollow."[34] In February 2006, producer Frank Marshall said a "good script" had been completed and filming would begin in 2007 for a 2008 release.[35] In March 2007, Laura Dern was asked to return for the new film, which Universal still wanted to release by 2008.[36] Director Joe Johnston was also reported not to be directing the film.[37] Richard Attenborough has been contacted about reprising the role of John Hammond.[38] Jeff Goldblum has expressed some interest in reprising his role for the fourth film.[39] In December 2008, Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy were asked if there was any development on the sequel. Kennedy responded, "No... I don't know. You know, when Michael Crichton passed away, I sorta felt maybe that's it. Maybe that's a sign that we don't mess with it."[40] While Marshall and Kennedy were no longer signed with Universal Pictures in a production capacity, the two will remain involved with the studio and its plans for Jurassic Park IV.[41] In November 2009, Joe Johnston discussed the possibility of Jurassic Park IV, stating that the story for the film is completely different from that of its predecessors and would take the franchise into a whole other trilogy.[42][43] Jurassic Park III director Joe Johnston revealed in an interview in January 2010 that Jurassic Park IV was set to be the beginning of a second Jurassic Park trilogy.[44] He also added, “Jurassic Park 4 is going to be unlike anything you’ve seen.”[45] According to a new interview conducted in 2010 by Drew McWeeny with Joe Johnston on the website Behind the Films, a new script is under works with a different idea behind it. Johnston says once he finishes Captain America, he hopefully will develop Jurassic Park IV with Steven Spielberg. Joe Johnston enthusiastically has confirmed the likelihood of the film's production more than once.[46]

Comic BooksEdit

Topps ComicsEdit

From June 1993 to August 1997 the now-defunct Topps Comics published adaptions of the first two movies and several other Jurassic Park comics.

Comic BooksEdit

Trade PaperbacksEdit

  • Jurassic Park (November 1993) Collected edition of Jurassic Park #1-4. Included Jurassic Park #0 as a pack-in.

IDW ComicsEdit

Beginning in June 2010, IDW Publishing began a new ongoing Jurassic Park series. They also acquired the rights to reprint the issues published by Topps in the 1990's, which they began to do in Trade Paperback format starting in November 2010.

Comic BooksEdit

Trade PaperbacksEdit

  • Classic Jurassic Park Vol. 1 (November 2010) Collected edition of Jurassic Park #1-4.
  • Jurassic Park Vol. 1: Redemption (January 2011) Collected edition of Jurassic Park #1-5.

Video GamesEdit

Main article: Jurassic Park video games

Ever since the announcement of the 1993 Jurassic Park feature film, developers Ocean Software, BlueSky Software and Sega of America were licensed to produce games to be sold to coincide with the release of the film on the popular platforms of the time. Ocean Software released video games based on the 1993 film for NES, Super NES, Game Boy, PC:DOS, and Amiga. Sega of America released three games for Sega systems. Each game became substantial sellers, and spawned a second generation of video games for SNES and Game Boy. For the second film in the franchise, DreamWorks Interactive released 5 games for the most popular systems at the time. The third film had the biggest marketing push, spawning seven video games for PC and Game Boy Advance. A number of lightgun arcade games were also released for all three films. There was also a game available for the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and PC called Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis where the goal of the game was to create and manage their own version of Jurassic Park, in a manner somewhat similar to the Zoo Tycoon games. To reestablish interest in the series after eight years (since the previous game), a new episodic video game series based on the Jurassic Park franchise will be developed by Telltale Games in a deal with NBC Universal.[47]

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

Template:Jurassic Park Template:Jurassic Park games Template:Hasbroes:Parque Jurásico (franquicia) sv:Jurassic Park IV

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