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Template:Other uses Template:Infobox film Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science fiction thriller film[1] directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. The film centers on the fictional Isla Nublar (Spanish for "Cloudy Island"), in Costa Rica, where billionaire philanthropist John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) and a team of genetic scientists from his company have created an amusement park of cloned dinosaurs. Before Crichton's book was even published studios such as Warner Bros., Columbia TriStar, 20th Century Fox, and Universal had already began bidding to acquire the picture rights. Spielberg, with the backing of Universal Studios, acquired the rights to the novel before its publication in 1990, and Crichton himself was hired by Universal Studios for an additional $500,000 to adapt the novel into a proper screenplay.[2] David Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence, and made numerous changes to the characters. Jurassic Park is regarded as a landmark in the use of computer-generated imagery, and received positive reviews from critics, who praised the effects, though reactions to other elements of the picture, such as character development, were mixed. During its release, the film grossed more than $914 million worldwide, becoming the most successful film released up to that time (surpassing E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and surpassed 4 years later by Titanic), and it is currently the 15th highest grossing feature film (taking inflation into account, it is the 18th-highest-grossing film in North America). It is the most financially successful film for NBC Universal and Steven Spielberg.

Plot Edit

The wealthy billionaire and dinosaur enthusiast John Hammond (Richard Attenborough), CEO of InGen has recently created Jurassic Park; a futuristic theme park populated with dinosaurs cloned from DNA taken from fossilized mosquitoes preserved in amber. The park is situated on Isla Nublar, an island 87 miles north-west of Costa Rica; for security purposes, the island is surrounded by fifty miles of electric fence, and the dinosaurs have had their chromosomes altered to make them all female to prevent reproduction. After an incident in the park, where a worker is fatally savaged by a Velociraptor, Hammond is advised by his lawyer Donald Gennaro (Martin Ferrero) to have two experts sign off on the island for the benefit of health and safety. To that end, Hammond invites paleontologist Alan Grant (Sam Neill) and paleobotanist Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern) along with Dr. Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum), a chaotician, and Hammond's grandchildren—Timothy "Tim" Murphy (Joseph Mazzello) and Alexis "Lex" Murphy (Ariana Richards)—to Jurassic Park, in order to convince his lawyers the park is safe. The group is sent into the park as part of a safari experience to observe most of the animals. Hammond, meanwhile, observes his guests along with Head Technician Ray Arnold (Samuel L. Jackson) and his Head of Security, Robert Muldoon (Bob Peck). However, it transpires that one of the computer programmers, Dennis Nedry (Wayne Knight), is in the employ of BioSyn, a corporate rival of InGen, and has been paid a substantial price to steal fertilized dinosaur embryos. To allow the theft, Nedry infects the park's security measures with a computer virus to allow him access to the embryo storage, inadvertently deactivating the electrified fences containing the dinosaurs. The rest of the group, who have been stranded in the park due to the system shutdown, are attacked by the Tyrannosaurus escaping from its paddock; Gennaro is killed and Malcolm is badly injured. Grant survives and escapes with the children into the park. Nedry flees with his prize, but his jeep gets stuck, and while trying to winch it out Nedry is blinded and eventually killed by an escaped Dilophosaurus. The embryos are lost. With the virus affecting the entire park's systems, Hammond recommends a total shutdown of the park's systems. He, along with Sattler, Arnold, Muldoon and Malcolm, shuts down the park's system and retreats to the emergency bunker, from where Arnold heads to the maintenance compound to reboot the system. When he doesn't return, Muldoon and Sattler head for the compound; on the way, they pass the raptor paddock, and discover the raptors (whose fence wasn't shut off by Nedry but was affected by the park-wide shut-down) have escaped. At the same time, Grant and the children discover a nest full of hatched eggs; the dinosaurs are breeding. Grant theorizes this is due to using frog DNA to fill in gaps in the dinosaur gene sequence, as some frogs are able to change gender in a single-sex environment. As Muldoon and Sattler proceed to the maintenance compound, Muldoon realizes they are being hunted by Velociraptors. The pair split up; Muldoon goes after the raptors, while Sattler heads for the maintenance shed. She manages to reactivate the park's systems (narrowly escaping a Velociraptor hiding inside the shed, which has killed Arnold); meanwhile, Muldoon is ambushed and killed by the Velociraptors. Grant and the kids head for the visitor's centre; he leaves the kids alone in the kitchen while he reunites with Sattler and the others. The kids find that two Velociraptors have entered the visitor centre, but they are able to evade the dinosaurs, reunite with Grant and Sattler and get the park's security systems working from the control room. Grant contacts Hammond and tells him to call the mainland for rescue, but the two raptors find the group and attack. The group flees, only to be cornered in the entrance hall by the Velociraptors, who get ready to pounce. As all seems lost, the Tyrannosaurus breaks into the hall and seizes one of the raptors in its jaws, killing it. The second raptor charges the T-Rex as Sattler, Grant and the kids run for safety as the two dinosaurs fight; they are rescued by Malcolm and Hammond, who have fled the emergency bunker in a Jeep, where Grant tells Hammond he will not endorse Jurassic Park, a decision with which Hammond agrees. As they drive away, the Tyrannosaurus finishes off the Velociraptor and roars in triumph. The group reaches the helipad, where they are evacuated from the island. As their helicopter flies across the ocean back to the mainland, Grant sees a flock of pelicans flying past, reminders of the connection between birds and dinosaurs.

Cast Edit

Main article: List of characters in Jurassic Park
  • Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant, a world renowned paleontologist first seen excavating Velociraptor fossils in the Montana badlands. Neill was Spielberg's original choice, but he was too busy. Spielberg then met Richard Dreyfuss and Kurt Russell, who were too expensive, and William Hurt turned down the role.[3] Spielberg then pushed back filming a month to let Neill play the character: he wound up only having a weekend's break between filming Family Pictures and Jurassic Park. Neill prepared for the role by meeting paleontologist Jack Horner, who would later be the technical adviser on the entire trilogy.[4] Neill scarred his wrist filming the T. Rex attack when the flare he held went off.[5]
  • Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler, a paleobotanist and graduate student of Grant's. Dern also met Horner and visited the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, learning to prepare a fossil.[4] Sigourney Weaver was reportedly Spielberg's first choice before he settled for Dern.Template:Citation needed
  • Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm, a mathematician and chaos theorist. He suffers from "extreme excess of personality". Goldblum was Spielberg's first choice,[4] and he is a big fan of dinosaurs.[6] To prepare for his role, Goldblum met with James Gleick and Ivar Ekeland to discuss chaos theory.[7]
  • Richard Attenborough as John Hammond, CEO of InGen and architect of Jurassic Park. This was Attenborough's first acting role since The Human Factor (1979). He repeats the line "...spared no expense..." no fewer than five times during the film.[8]
  • Ariana Richards as Lex Murphy, Hammond's granddaughter, a vegetarian and self-professed computer hacker.
  • Joseph Mazzello as Tim Murphy, Lex's younger brother, Tim is into dinosaurs. He has read Dr. Grant's book and is an avid fan, irritating Grant with a stream of questions.
  • Wayne Knight as Dennis Nedry, The disgruntled architect of Jurassic Park's computer systems. For his character's death, Knight was shot with an air gun filled with K-Y Jelly to simulate the DilophosaurusTemplate:'s venomous spit. The jelly dyed the actor's hair purple, something about which the actor would reminisce with the technician who shot the jelly at him when they discovered they were neighbors.[9]
  • Bob Peck as Robert Muldoon, the park's game warden. He is concerned about the intelligence of the raptors and would have them all destroyed.
  • Martin Ferrero as Donald Gennaro, a lawyer who represents Hammond's concerned investors.
  • Samuel L. Jackson as Ray Arnold, the park's chief engineer.
  • B. D. Wong as Dr. Henry Wu, the park's chief geneticist, who is responsible for making all the dinosaurs female and lysine deficient.
  • Gerald R. Molen, the film's producer, cameoed as Gerry Harding, the park's veterinarian, who appears to take care of the Triceratops. He is credited as Jerry Molen.
  • Cameron Thor as Lewis Dodgson, the head of InGen's rival corporation Biosyn.
  • Dean Cundey, the film's cinematographer, cameoed as the Dockworker to whom Nedry talks on the computer.
  • Greg Burson as the voice of Mr. DNA.
  • Richard Kiley as the voice of the car tour guide.

Production Edit

Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur; he continued to wrestle with his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he began writing the novel Jurassic Park.[10] Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the television series ER.[11] Before the book was published, Crichton demanded a non-negotiable fee of $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Brothers and Tim Burton, Sony Pictures Entertainment and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante bid for the rights,[11] but Universal eventually acquired them in May 1990 for Spielberg.[12] Universal paid Crichton a further $500,000 to adapt his own novel,[13] which he had finished by the time Spielberg was filming Hook. Crichton noted that because the book was "fairly long" his script only had about 10 to 20 percent of the novel's content; scenes were dropped for budgetary and practical reasons.[14] After completing Hook, Spielberg wanted to film Schindler's List. Music Corporation of America (then the parent company of Universal Pictures) president Sid Sheinberg gave a green light to the film on one condition: that Spielberg make Jurassic Park first. Spielberg later said, "He knew that once I had directed Schindler I wouldn't be able to do Jurassic Park."[11] Spielberg hired Stan Winston to create the animatronic dinosaurs, Phil Tippett to create go motion dinosaurs for long shots, Michael Lantieri to supervise the on-set effects, and Dennis Muren to do the digital compositing. Paleontologist Jack Horner supervised the designs, to help fulfil Spielberg's desire to portray the dinosaurs as animals rather than monsters. Horner dismissed the raptors' flicking tongues in Tippett's early animatics,[15] complaining, "[The dinosaurs] have no way of doing that!" Taking Horner's advice, Spielberg insisted that Tippett take the tongues out.[16] Winston's department created fully detailed models of the dinosaurs before molding latex skins, which were fitted over complex robotics. Tippett created stop-motion animatics of major scenes, but, despite go motion's attempts at motion blurs, Spielberg still found the end results unsatisfactory in terms of working in a live-action feature film.[15] Animators Mark Dippe and Steve Williams went ahead in creating a computer-generated walk cycle for the T. Rex skeleton and were approved to do more.[17] When Spielberg and Tippett saw an animatic of the T. Rex chasing a herd of Gallimimus, Spielberg said, "You're out of a job," to which Tippett replied, "Don't you mean extinct?"[15] Spielberg later wrote both the animatic and his dialogue between him and Tippett into the script.[18] As George Lucas watched the demonstration alongside of them, his eyes began to tear up. "It was like one of those moments in history, like the invention of the light bulb or the first telephone call," he said. "A major gap had been crossed, and things were never going to be the same."[19] Malia Scotch Marmo began a script rewrite in October 1991 over a five-month period, merging Ian Malcolm with Alan Grant.[20] Screenwriter David Koepp came on board afterward, starting afresh from Marmo's draft, and used Spielberg's idea of a cartoon shown to the visitors to remove much of the exposition that fills Crichton's novel.[21] Spielberg also excised a sub-plot of Procompsognathus escaping to the mainland and attacking young children, as he found it too horrific.[22] This sub-plot would eventually be used as a prologue in the Spielberg-directed sequel, The Lost World. Hammond was changed from a ruthless businessman to a kindly old man, because Spielberg identified with Hammond's obsession with showmanship.[23] He also switched the characters of Tim and Lex; in the book, Tim is aged 11 and into computers, and Lex is only seven or eight and into sports. Spielberg did this because he wanted to work with the younger Joseph Mazzello, and it also allowed him to introduce the sub-plot of Lex's adolescent crush on Grant.[4] Koepp changed Grant's relationship with the children, making him hostile to them initially to allow for more character development.[11] Koepp also took the opportunity to cut out a major sequence from the book, for budgetary reasons, where the T. Rex chases Grant and the children down a river before being tranquilized by Muldoon. This scene was revived in part in Jurassic Park III with the Spinosaurus replacing the T.Rex.[21] After 25 months of pre-production, filming began on August 24, 1992, on the Hawaiian island of [[Kauai|KauaTemplate:Okinai]].[24] The three-week shoot involved various daytime exteriors.[12] On September 11, Hurricane Iniki passed directly over KauaTemplate:Okinai, which caused the crew to lose a day of shooting.[25] Several of the storm scenes from the movie are actual footage shot during the hurricane. The scheduled shoot of the Gallimimus chase was moved to Kualoa Ranch on the island of Oahu and one of the beginning scenes had to be created by digital animating a still shot of scenery.[18] The crew moved back to mainland USA to shoot at Universal Studios's Stage 24 for scenes involving the raptors in the kitchen.[12] The crew also shot on Stage 23 for the scenes involving the power supply, before going on location to Red Rock Canyon for the Montana dig scenes.[26] The crew returned to Universal to shoot Grant's rescue of Tim, using a fifty-foot prop with hydraulic wheels for the car fall, and the Brachiosaurus encounter. The crew filmed scenes for the Park's labs and control room, which used animations for the computers lent from Silicon Graphics and Apple.[27] The crew moved to Warner Bros. Studios' Stage 16 to shoot the T. Rex attack on the tour cars.[27] Shooting proved frustrating due to water soaking the foam rubber skin of the animatronic dinosaur.[6] The ripples in the glass of water caused by the T. RexTemplate:'s footsteps was inspired by Spielberg listening to Earth, Wind and Fire in his car, and the vibrations the bass rhythm caused. Lantieri was unsure of how to create the shot until the night before filming, when he put a glass of water on a guitar he was playing, which achieved the concentric circles in the water Spielberg wanted. The next morning, guitar strings were put inside the car and a man on the ground plucked the strings to achieve the effect.[28] Back at Universal, the crew filmed scenes with the Dilophosaurus on Stage 27. Finally, the shoot finished on Stage 12, with the climactic chases with the raptors in the Park's computer rooms and Visitor's Center.[29] Spielberg brought back the T. Rex for the climax, abandoning his original ending in which Grant uses a platform machine to maneuver a raptor into a fossil tyrannosaur's jaws.[30] The film wrapped twelve days ahead of schedule on November 30,[12][31][32] and within days editor Michael Kahn had a rough cut ready, allowing Spielberg to go ahead with filming Schindler's List.[33] Special effects work continued on the film, with Tippett's unit adjusting to new technology with Dinosaur Input Devices:[34] models which fed information into the computers to allow themselves to animate the characters traditionally. In addition, they acted out scenes with the raptors and Gallimimus. As well as the computer-generated dinosaurs, ILM also created elements such as water splashing and digital face replacement for Ariana Richards' stunt double.[15] Compositing the dinosaurs onto the live action scenes took around an hour. Rendering the dinosaurs often took two to four hours per frame, and rendering the T. Rex in the rain even took six hours per frame.[35] Spielberg monitored their progress from Poland.[36] Composer John Williams began work on the score at the end of February, and it was conducted a month later by John Neufeld and Alexander Courage.[37] The sound effects crew, supervised by George Lucas,[38] were finished by the end of April. Jurassic Park was finally completed on May 28, 1993.[37] Template:See

Dinosaurs on screen Edit

Template:See also Despite the title of the film referencing the Jurassic period, most of the dinosaurs featured did not exist until the Cretaceous period.[39] When explaining the ferocity of the Velociraptor to a cynical young boy, Dr. Grant says "Try to imagine yourself in the Cretaceous period..."

  • Tyrannosaurus Rex, abbreviated as "T. Rex", is the star of the film and, according to Spielberg, the reason he rewrote the ending for fear of disappointing the audience.[15] Winston's animatronic T. Rex stood Template:Convert, weighed Template:Convert,[27] and was Template:Convert long.[40] Jack Horner called it "the closest I've ever been to a live dinosaur".[40] The dinosaur is depicted with a vision system based on movement. Its roar is a baby elephant mixed with a tiger and an alligator, and its breath is a whale's blow.[37] A dog attacking a ball was used for the sounds of it tearing a Gallimimus apart.[15]
  • Velociraptor also has a major role and is portrayed as the film's antagonist. The animal's depiction was not based on the actual dinosaur genus in question (which itself was significantly smaller), rather the related (and larger) genus Deinonychus, which had been synonymised with Velociraptor by Gregory S. Paul in 1988.[41] Crichton's writing followed this, but by the time production of the film took place, the idea had been dropped by the scientific community. Coincidentally, before Jurassic Park's theatre release, the similar Utahraptor was discovered, though was proved bigger in appearance than the film's raptors; this prompted Stan Winston to joke, "We made it, then they discovered it."[40] For the attack on character Robert Muldoon, the raptors were played by men in suits.[29] Dolphin screams, walruses bellowing, geese hissing, an African crane's mating call, and human rasps were mixed to formulate various raptor sounds.[15][37] Following discoveries made after the film's release, most paleontologists theorized that dromaeosaurs like Velociraptor and Deinonychus had feathers.[42]
  • Dilophosaurus was also very different from its real-life counterpart, made significantly smaller to make sure audiences did not confuse it with the raptors.[43] Its neck frill and its ability to spit venom are fictitious. Its vocal sounds were made by combining a swan, a hawk, a howler monkey, and a rattlesnake.[15]
  • Brachiosaurus is the first dinosaur seen by the park's visitors. It is inaccurately depicted as chewing its food as well as standing up on its hind legs to browse among the high tree branches. Despite scientific evidence of their having limited vocal capabilities, sound designer Gary Rydstrom decided to represent them with whale songs and donkey calls to give them a melodic sense of wonder.[37]
  • Triceratops has an extended cameo. Its appearance was a particular logistical nightmare for Stan Winston when Spielberg asked to shoot the animatronic of the sick creature earlier than expected.[44] Winston also created a baby Triceratops for Ariana Richards to ride, which was cut from the film for pacing reasons.[45]
  • Gallimimus and Parasaurolophus roles are mainly cameos. Gallimimus feature in a stampede scene where one of them is devoured by the Tyrannosaurus. Parasaurolophus appears in the background during the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus.

Distribution Edit

Universal spent $65 million on the marketing campaign for Jurassic Park, making deals with 100 companies to market 1,000 products.[46] These included three Jurassic Park video games by Sega and Ocean Software,[47] a toy line by Kenner that was distributed by Hasbro,[48] and a novelization aimed at young children.[49] The released soundtrack included unused material.[50] Trailers for the film only gave fleeting glimpses of the dinosaurs,[51] a tactic journalist Josh Horowitz described as "that old Spielberg axiom of never revealing too much" when Spielberg and director Michael Bay did the same for their production of Transformers in 2007.[52] The film was marketed with the tagline "An Adventure 65 Million Years In The Making." This was a joke Spielberg made on set about the genuine, thousands of years old mosquito in amber used for Hammond's walking stick.[53] The film premiered at the National Building Museum on June 9, 1993, in Washington, D.C.,[54] in support of two children's charities.[55] The film made its VHS and LaserDisc debut on October 4, 1994,[56] and was first released on DVD on October 10, 2000.[57] The film was also released in a package with The Lost World: Jurassic Park.[58] The DVD was re-released with both sequels on December 11, 2001,[59] as the Jurassic Park Trilogy, and as the Jurassic Park Adventure Pack on November 29, 2005.[60] Following the film's release, a traveling exhibition began.[61] Steve Englehart wrote a series of comic books published by Topps Comics. They acted as a continuation of the film, consisting of the two-issue Raptor, the four-issue Raptors Attack and Raptors Hijack, and Return to Jurassic Park, which lasted nine issues. All published issues were republished under the single title Jurassic Park Adventures in the United States and as Jurassic Park in the United Kingdom.[62] Ocean Software released a game sequel entitled Jurassic Park 2: The Chaos Continues in 1994 on Super NES and Game Boy.[47] Jurassic Park was broadcast on television for the first time on May 7, 1995, following the April 26 airing of The Making of Jurassic Park.[63] Some 68.12 million people tuned in to watch, garnering NBC a 36 percent share of all available viewers that night. Jurassic Park was the highest-rated theatrical film broadcast on television by any network since the April 1987 airing of Trading Places.[64] In June–July 1995 the film was aired a number of times on the TNT network.[64] "The Jurassic Park Ride" went into development in November 1990[65] and premiered at Universal Studios Hollywood on June 15, 1996,[66] at a cost of $110 million.[65] Islands of Adventure in Orlando, Florida, has an entire section of the park dedicated to Jurassic Park that includes the main ride, christened "Jurassic Park River Adventure", and many smaller rides and attractions based on the series.[67] The Universal Studios theme park rides have been designed to support the film's plot, with Hammond supposedly having been contacted to rebuild the Park at the theme park location.[66]

Reception Edit

Commercial Edit

Jurassic Park became the most financially successful film released worldwide as of that time, beating Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial which previously held the title, though it did not top E.T. in North America.[68] The film opened with $47 million in its first weekend[69] and had grossed $81.7 million by its first week.[70] The film stayed at number one for three weeks and eventually grossed $357 million in the U.S. and Canada.[71] The film also did very well in international markets, breaking opening records in the United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan.[72] Spielberg earned over $250 million from the film.[73] Jurassic Park's worldwide gross was topped five years later by James Cameron's Titanic.[74]

Critical Edit

The film received mostly positive reviews. High praise was heaped on the visual effects, although there was much criticism leveled at the characterization and departures from the book. Janet Maslin of The New York Times called it "a true movie milestone, presenting awe- and fear-inspiring sights never before seen on the screen… On paper, this story is tailor-made for Mr. Spielberg's talents…[but] [i]t becomes less crisp on screen than it was on the page, with much of the enjoyable jargon either mumbled confusingly or otherwise thrown away."[75] In Rolling Stone, Peter Travers described the film as "colossal entertainment—the eye-popping, mind-bending, kick-out-the-jams thrill ride of summer and probably the year [...] Compared with the dinos, the characters are dry bones, indeed. Crichton and co-screenwriter David Koepp have flattened them into nonentities on the trip from page to screen."[76] Roger Ebert noted, "The movie delivers all too well on its promise to show us dinosaurs. We see them early and often, and they are indeed a triumph of special effects artistry, but the movie is lacking other qualities that it needs even more, such as a sense of awe and wonderment, and strong human story values."[77] Henry Sheehan argued, "The complaints over Jurassic Park's lack of story and character sound a little off the point," pointing out the story arc of Grant learning to protect Hammond's grandchildren despite his initial dislike of them.[23] Empire Magazine gave the film five stars, hailing it as "...quite simply one of the greatest blockbusters of all time."[78] Rotten Tomatoes reported that 87% of critics gave Jurassic Park a positive write-up with 90% of top critics being positive.[79] In 1994, the film won all three Academy Awards it was nominated for: Visual Effects, Sound Effects Editing, and Sound (at the same ceremony, Steven Spielberg, Michael Kahn, and John Williams took home Academy Awards for Schindler's List). The film won honors outside of the U.S. including the 1994 BAFTA for Best Special Effects, as well as the Award for the Public's Favorite Film.[80] It won the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation,[81] and the 1993 Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film, Best Direction, Best Writing for Crichton and Koepp and Best Special Effects.[82] The film won the 1993 People's Choice Awards for Favorite All-Around Motion Picture.[83] Young Artist Awards were given to Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello, with the film winning an Outstanding Action/Adventure Family Motion Picture award.[84] The Chicago Film Critics Association rank Jurassic Park as the 55th scariest movie of all time.

Legacy Edit

The American Film Institute named Jurassic Park the 35th most thrilling film of all time on June 13, 2001,[85] and Bravo chose the scene in which Lex and Tim are stalked by two Raptors in the kitchen as the 95th scariest of all time in 2005.[86] On Empire magazine's fifteenth anniversary in 2004, it judged Jurassic Park the sixth most influential film of the magazine's lifetime.[87] Empire called the first encounter with a Brachiosaurus the 28th most magical moment in cinema.[88] In 2008, an Empire poll of readers, filmakers, and critics also rated it one of the 500 greatest films of all time.[89] On Film Review's fifty-fifth anniversary in 2005, it declared the film to be one of the five most important in the magazine's lifetime.[90] In 2006, IGN ranked Jurassic Park as the 19th greatest film franchise of all time.[91] In a 2010 poll, the readers of Entertainment Weekly rated it the greatest summer movie of the previous 20 years.[92] Most significantly, when many filmmakers saw Jurassic Park's use of computer-generated imagery, they realized that many of their visions, previously thought unfeasible or too expensive, were now possible. Stanley Kubrick, the director of 2001: A Space Odyssey, contacted Spielberg to direct A.I..[87] Filmmaker Werner Herzog was similarly impressed, citing the movie as an example of Spielberg being a "great storyteller" and that he knows how to weave special effects into coherent stories.[93] George Lucas started to make the Star Wars prequels,[94] and Peter Jackson began to re-explore his childhood love of fantasy films, a path that led him to The Lord of the Rings and King Kong.[95] Jurassic Park has also inspired films and documentaries such as the American adaptation of Godzilla, Carnosaur, and Walking with Dinosaurs,[87] as well as numerous parodies, like the Leslie Nielsen comedy feature Spy Hard. Stan Winston, enthusiastic about the new technology pioneered by the film, joined with IBM and director James Cameron to form a new special effects company, Digital Domain.[96] Film historian Tom Shone commented on the film's innovation and influence, saying that "In its way, Jurassic Park heralded a revolution in movies as profound as the coming of sound in 1927."[97]

See also Edit

References Edit

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External links Edit

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Template:S-start Template:S-ach Template:S-bef Template:S-ttl Template:S-aft Template:S-end Template:Jurassic Park Template:Steven Spielberg Template:Michael CrichtonTemplate:Link FA ar:الحديقة الجوارسية (فيلم) ca:Jurassic Park cs:Jurský park cy:Jurassic Park (ffilm) da:Jurassic Park de:Jurassic Park es:Parque Jurásico (película) fa:پارک ژوراسیک (فیلم) fr:Jurassic Park gl:Parque Xurásico hr:Jurski park (1993) id:Jurassic Park is:Júragarðurinn it:Jurassic Park (film) he:פארק היורה lv:Juras laikmeta parks lt:Juros periodo parkas (filmas) hu:Jurassic Park ml:ജുറാസ്സിക്‌ പാർക്ക്‌ (ചലച്ചിത്രം) nl:Jurassic Park (film) ja:ジュラシック・パーク no:Jurassic Park nn:Filmen Jurassic Park pl:Jurassic Park (film) pt:Jurassic Park ro:Jurassic Park (film) ru:Парк юрского периода (фильм) sah:Юра кэм Паарката simple:Jurassic Park (movie) sk:Jurský park sl:Jurski park (film) fi:Jurassic Park sv:Jurassic Park th:จูราสสิค พาร์ค กำเนิดใหม่ไดโนเสาร์ tr:Jurassic Park uk:Парк Юрського періоду (фільм) bat-smg:Juras perėjuoda parks zh:侏儸紀公園 &nbsp

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